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Kinetochorove mikrotubuly

Kinetochore Microtubule - an overview ScienceDirect Topic

At the kinetochore, a variety of complexes have been shown to capture microtubule (+)-ends. Moreover, a (+)-end capping activity for interphase microtubules has also been described. [34] This later activity is mediated by formins , [35] the adenomatous polyposis coli protein, and EB1 , [36] a protein that tracks along the growing plus ends of microtubules Kinetochore-microtubule attachments are highly regulated to ensure that incorrect attachments are not prematurely stabilized, but instead released and corrected. The kinase activity of the. pole-to-kinetochore microtubule View GO Annotations in other species in AmiGO. Ontology Diagram. Reset. Click on a go term to go to its specific page within SGD; drag any of the go term objects around within the visualization for easier viewing; click Reset to automatically redraw the diagram Structure and dynamics of kinetochore and mitotic chromosome by Drew Berry, wehi.tvCreated for E.O.Wilson's Life on Earth interactive textbook of biology (20.. The kinetochore is a control module that both powers and regulates chromosome segregation in mitosis and meiosis. The kinetochore-microtubule interface is remarkably fluid, with the microtubules growing and shrinking at their point of attachment to the kinetochore. Furthermore, the kinetochore itself is highly dynamic, its makeup changing as cells enter mitosis and as it encounters microtubules

It has been shown that cytoplasmic dynein, targeted to cortical actin, removes minus-end-out microtubules from axons. Here we have identified Spindly, a protein known for recruitment of dynein to kinetochores in mitosis, as a key factor required for dynein-dependent microtubule sorting in axons of Drosophila neurons Gradual increase in the stability of kinetochore‐microtubule attachments allows temporal coordination with the progression of acentrosomal spindle assembly. Kinetochore‐microtubule attachments are sharply stabilized in somatic cells where bipolar spindle formation is rapid

Kinetochore-microtubule attachment and kinetochore orientation. The attachment of microtubules to kinetochores is essential for the alignment and segregation of chromosomes. The crucial difference between budding yeast and fission yeast in kinetochore-microtubule attachment is the number of microtubules attaching to one kinetochore Inhibition of PLK1 methylation at the kinetochore as expressing Hec1-mCherry-PLK1 K191R also suppresses microtubule dynamics , indicating that SET7/9 synergizes with kinetochore PLK1 to promote spindle microtubule dynamics. Thus, we conclude that methylation of PLK1 at kinetochore by SET7/9 provides a homeostatic control of PLK1 activity in space and time The kinetochore is the macromolecular complex that assembles at the centromere of each chromosome during mitosis and serves as the link between the DNA and the m Accurate chromosome segregation critically depends on the formation of attachments between microtubule polymers and each sister chromatid Core kinetochore-microtubule interactions. Mature end-on microtubule attachments are required for chromosome bi-orientation and satisfaction of the spindle assembly checkpoint (Kuhn and Dumont, 2017).The central player in the formation of these stable attachments is the Ndc80 complex, a component of the kinetochore scaffold 1 (KNL1)/Mis12/Ndc80 (KMN) network

In particular, PLK1 is implicated in stabilizing kinetochore-microtubule attachments, but how kinetochore PLK1 activity is regulated to avoid hyperstabilized kinetochore-microtubules in mitosis remains elusive. Here, we show that kinetochore PLK1 kinase activity is modulated by SET7/9 via lysine methylation during early mitosis The conserved Ndc80 complex is an essential microtubule-binding component of the kinetochore. Recent findings suggest that the Ndc80 complex influences microtubule dynamics at kinetochores in vivo. However, it was unclear if the Ndc80 complex mediates these effects directly, or by affecting other factors localized at the kinetochore. Using a reconstituted system in vitro, we show that the. Mitotic cells face the challenging tasks of linking kinetochores to growing and shortening microtubules and actively regulating these dynamic attachments to produce accurate chromosome segregation. We report here that Ndc80/Hec1 functions in regulating kinetochore microtubule plus-end dynamics and attachment stability. Microinjection of an antibody to the N terminus of Hec1 suppresses both.

Kinetochores are large protein structures assembled on centromeric DNA during mitosis that bind to microtubules of the mitotic spindle to orchestrate and power chromosome movements. Deregulation of kinetochore-microtubule (KT-MT) attachments has been implicated in driving chromosome instability and cancer evolution; however, the nature and source of KT-MT attachment defects in cancer. This defined a metaphase plate-centered coordinate system for kinetochore positions, allowing each kinetochore to be classified as aligned or unaligned by determining whether it was an inlier or an outlier with respect to the distribution of kinetochore positions along the normal to the metaphase plate (Fig. 2 a, step 2; and Video 3) Polo-like kinase-1 (Plk1) regulates numerous processes in cell division and localizes to several intracellular sites based on interactions mediated by the Polo-box domain (PBD; Petronczki et al., 2008; Archambault and Glover, 2009).One of these sites is the kinetochore, where Plk1 is required for stable attachments to spindle microtubules (Sumara et al., 2004; Hanisch et al., 2006; Peters et. The data presented thus far favor the hypothesis that stabilization of kinetochore-microtubule attachments by BUBR1 is due to phospho-KARD-dependent recruitment of PP2A that balances excessive Aurora B activity toward the KMN network. If this is a major mechanism by which BUBR1 contributes to kinetochore-microtubule attachments, BUBR1 should.

Proposed to be part of the KMN network incorporating the MIS12 complex and NDC80 complex that is required for establishing the kinetochore-microtubule interface that aids in chromosome segregation during meiotic and mitotic cell division (PubMed:14522947, PubMed:15371340, PubMed:17129783, PubMed:18070910). Appears to function downstream of hcp-3 (CENP-A) and hcp-4 (CENP-C) in the kinetochore. Kinetochore-microtubule attachments are highly regulated to ensure that incorrect attachments are not prematurely stabilized, but instead released and corrected Background Protein assemblies named kinetochores bind sister chromatids to the mitotic spindle and orchestrate sister chromatid segregation. Interference with kinetochore activity triggers a spindle checkpoint mediated arrest in mitosis, which frequently ends in cell death. We set out to identify small compounds that inhibit kinetochore-microtubule binding for use in kinetochore-spindle. The microtubule-dependent motor centromere-associated protein E (CENP- E) is an integral component of kinetochore corona fibers that link centromeres to spindle microtubules. J. Cell Biol. 139. Additionally, we identified the specific microtubule-associated proteins required for the successful mitotic transmission of acentric chromosomes to daughter cells. These studies reveal unsuspected, distinct forces that likely act on all chromosomes during mitosis independent of kinetochore-microtubule attachments

A kinetochore is the patch of protein found on the centromere of each chromatid. It is where the chromatids are tightly connected. When it's time, at the appropriate phase of cell division, the kinetochore's ultimate goal is move chromosomes during mitosis and meiosis Created by Efrat Bruck. Watch the next lesson: https://www.khanacademy.org/test-prep/mcat/cells/prokaryotes-bacteria/v/overview-of-archaea-protista-and-bacte.. Microtubule Definition. Microtubules are microscopic hollow tubes made of the proteins alpha and beta tubulin that are part of a cell's cytoskeleton, a network of protein filaments that extends throughout the cell, gives the cell shape, and keeps its organelles in place.Microtubules are the largest structures in the cytoskeleton at about 24 nanometers thick

Translations in context of kinetochore microtubule in English-French from Reverso Context: Each chromatid was attached to a spindle pole by a single, continuous, kinetochore microtubule kinetochore microtubule Known as: pole-to-kinetochore microtubule Any of the spindle microtubules that attach to the kinetochores of chromosomes by their plus ends, and maneuver the chromosomes during mitotic o Dynein is proposed to accelerate the establishment of kinetochore-microtubule attachments (Rieder and Alexander 1990; Z Yang et al. 2007; Gassmann et al. 2008; Vorozhko et al. 2008), so it is tempting to conclude that the delayed chromosome alignment in Spindly depletions is due to the lack of kinetochore dynein The nuclear division cycle 80 complex (Ndc80C) is a major microtubule receptor at the kinetochore. Ndc80C also mediates the kinetochore recruitment of checkpoint proteins. We found that the..

a highly stereotypical manner, with each sister kinetochore forming microtubule attachments to only one spindle pole. The exact sequence of events by which this goal is achieved varies considerably from cell to cell because of the variable locations of kinetochores and spindle poles, and randomness of initial microtubule attachments The precise regulation of kinetochore-microtubule attachment that ensures error-free mitosis may be explained by homeostatic principles involving receptors, a core control network, effectors and. In dividing vertebrate cells multiple microtubules must connect to mitotic kinetochores in a highly stereotypical manner, with each sister kinetochore forming microtubule attachments to only one spindle pole. The exact sequence of events by which this goal is achieved varies considerably from cell to cell because of the variable locations of kinetochores and spindle poles, and randomness of.

CYTOLOGIE – I (stavba buněk)

The kinetochore-microtubule interaction is not a simple, static physical attachment. For chromosome movement to occur, kinetochores must use their interactions with microtubule polymers to generate force. During prometaphase, kinetochores are captured by microtubule polymers and moved to align them in the middle of the cell at the metaphase. Here we reconstituted the kinetochore-microtubule interface of budding yeast in vitro by attaching the Ndc80 complexes (Ndc80C) to nanobeads. These Ndc80C-nanobeads recapitulated in vitro the lateral and end-on attachments of authentic kinetochores, on dynamic microtubules loaded with the Dam1 complex How are kinetochore-microtubule interactions similar and dissimilar between budding yeast and metazoan cells? In the open mitosis of metazoan cells, there is a large temporal gap (G2 phase) between DNA replication and the initial kinetochore-microtubule interaction, because MTOCs must wait for the nuclear. Kukreja et al. use FRET microscopy to elucidate the nanoscale architecture of key human kinetochore proteins relative to the microtubule plus end. Their data highlight a conserved organization of the microtubule-binding Ndc80 complex in the human and budding yeast kinetochores despite their significantly different centromeric foundations

Kinetochore-microtubule attachment is sufficient to

  1. CENP‐E accumulates at the outer plate of kinetochores and mediates the kinetochore‐microtubule capture. CENP‐E also transports the chromosomes along spindle microtubules towards the equatorial plate. CENP‐E interacts with Bub1‐related kinase, Aurora B and core kinetochore components during kinetochore-microtubule attachment
  2. Multiple kinases and phosphatases act on the kinetochore to control chromosome segregation: Aurora B, Mps1, Bub1, Plk1, Cdk1, PP1, and PP2A-B56, have all been shown to regulate both kinetochore-microtubule attachments and the spindle assembly checkpoint. Given that so many kinases and phosphatases converge onto two key mitotic processes, it is perhaps not surprising to learn that they are.
  3. When chromosome separation in C. elegans oocytes was demonstrated to be kinetochore-independent, a model was proposed that spindle poles disassemble at anaphase onset and a new microtubule array polymerizes between segregating chromosomes to push them apart; an outward-pushing force generated by these microtubules on the inside surfaces of chromosomes was suggested to be the primary candidate.
  4. KKT4 is a kinetoplastid-specific microtubule-binding kinetochore protein that lacks significant similarity to any known kinetochore or microtubule-binding proteins. Here we present the 1H, 13C and 15N resonance assignments for several fragments from the microtubule-binding domain of KKT4 (KKT4115-343) from Trypanosoma brucei
  5. Loss of Plk1 activity leads to major loss of kinetochore proteins including CENP‐A from the chromosome in response to microtubule pulling forces. As cells progress into anaphase, the chromosomes lacking CENP‐A lag behind the segregating masses. Depletion of DNA helicase PICH partially rescues the kinetochore disruption induced by Plk1 inhibition
  6. Abstract Chromosome motion during cell division is driven by coupling the dynamic ends of microtubules to the kinetochore. Erroneous kinetochore-microtubule attachments frequently occur in early mitosis, but are corrected to prevent chromosome mis-segregation

How the kinetochore fibre is formed and how chromosome motion is produced and regulated remain major questions in cell biology. Here we look at some of the history of research devoted to the study of kinetochore-microtubule interaction and attempt to identify significant advances in the knowledge of the basic processes We show that kinetochore movements in the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe are regulated by kinesin-8-promoted microtubule catastrophe, force-induced rescue, and microtubule dynamic instability. A candidate screen showed that among the selected motors only kinesin-8 motors Klp5/Klp6 are required for kinetochore centering

Kinetochor - Wikipedi

Multiple kinetochore proteins are thought to work together in establishing, sensing and maintaining the microtubule attachment. Following attachment, kinetochores act to couple microtubule force generation to chromosome movements Alternatively, since CENP-E favours lateral kinetochore-microtubule attachments to transport unaligned chromosomes towards the metaphase plate (Kapoor et al., 2006), we reasoned that a difference in the types of kinetochore-microtubule attachments might bias the alignment of unaligned chromosomes: specifically end-on attachments might delay.

The key difference between centromere and kinetochore is that centromere is the region of the chromosome that holds two sister chromatids together after the replication of chromosome while kinetochore is the disc-shaped protein complex of the chromosome that allows spindle fibers to attach during the cell division.. Inheritance of genetic information depends on the proper segregation of. Kinetochore‐derived microtubules in yeast and fly cells. The figure shows generation of MTs at KTs and the roles of KT‐derived MTs during early mitosis in yeast (budding yeast) and fly (Drosophila) cells.Step 1: In both organisms, the KT can nucleate MTs and generate short MTs with distal plus ends (see discussion in Maiato et al, 2004; Kitamura et al, 2010); '+' and.

Kinetochore-microtubule interactions regulate chromosome mass organization and sister centromere fusion. The meiotic spindle consists of overlapping microtubules, only a portion of which make contact with the kinetochores. To understand which set of microtubules affect PP1-dependent centromere separation and chromosome mass disorganization, we. Another class of Aurora B substrates that may be important for regulating kinetochore-microtubule attachments in vertebrates is the kinesin-13 family, which catalyse depolymerization at the ends of microtubules [].MCAK (mitotic centromere-associated kinesin; Kif2c) is the best-characterized member of this family Abstract. The faithful segregation of duplicated sister chromatids rely on the remarkable ability of kinetochores to sustain stable load bearing attachments with the dynamic plus ends of kinetochore-microtubules (kMTs). The outer layer of the kinetochore recruits several motor and non-motor microtubule-associated proteins (MAPs) that help the kinetochores establish and maintain a load. Taken together, our results define a conserved signaling hierarchy, involving HEC1, TIP60, Aurora B, and SIRT1, that integrates dynamic HEC1 acetylation and phosphorylation for accurate kinetochore-microtubule attachment in the maintenance of genomic stability during mitosis

(PDF) Kinetochore-Microtubule Interaction

When a cell prepares to divide, it copies its DNA into pairs of each chromosome, called chromatids. Microtubules attach to the chromosome pairs through protein complexes called kinetochores. During cell division, microtubule depolymerization pulls the chromatids apart. Jenni and Harrison describe the structure of an essential component of the yeast kinetochore, the DASH/Dam1c complex, that. Mitóza je typ buněčného dělení, při kterém z jedné mateřské diploidní buňky vznikají dvě dceřiné diploidní buňky s identickou genetickou výbavou. Tímto způsobem se dělí somatické buňky, pohlavní dělení je označováno jako meióza.Mitóza je poslední fází buněčného cyklu následující za G2 fází. Zajišťuje růst a diferenciaci buněk, jejich obnovu a ve.

Kinetochore-microtubule interactions during cell division Kinetochore-microtubule interactions during cell division Maiato, Helder; Sunkel, Claudio 2004-10-11 00:00:00 Proper segregation of chromosomes during cell division is essential for the maintenance of genetic stability. During this process chromosomes must establish stable functional interactions with microtubules through the. Figure 1. The NDC80 complex at the kinetochore-microtubule interface. (A) Mitotic chromosome.(B) Organization of the kinetochore-microtubule interface in vertebrate cells. The foundation of the kinetochore is the CCAN, or the Constitutive Centromere Associated Network, which binds to CENP-A-containing centromeric chromatin The kinetochore is a protein complex assembled on the centromeric region of DNA. It provides the major attachement point for the spindle microtubules during mitotic or meiotic division to pull the chromosomes apart. In monocentric chromosomes, the kinetochores of point centromeres bind a single microtubule and the larger kinetochores of.

Kinetochore-microtubule interactions: steps towards bi. Benomyl perturbed microtubule‐kinetochore attachment and chromosome alignment at the metaphase plate. Benomyl also significantly decreased the distance between the sister kinetochore pairs in metaphase cells and increased the level of the checkpoint protein BubR1 at the kinetochore region, indicating that benomyl caused loss of tension across. The key kinetochore subcomplexes are the constitutive centromere-associated network (CCAN; divided into CENP-C, CENP-HIKM, CENP-TWSX, CENP-LN, and CENP-OPQUR) and the KMN-network (divided into the KNL1 complex, the MIS12 complex, and the NDC80 complex). The Astrin-SKAP complex and the Ska1 complex stabilise the kinetochore-microtubule binding

However, a growing number of additional molecules are being shown to be involved in the kinetochore- microtubule interaction. Here I overview the current range of regulatory mechanisms of the kinetochore-microtubule interaction, and discuss how these multiple molecules contribute cooperatively to allow faithful chromosome segregation The molecular mechanisms for stable kinetochore-microtubule attachment have been progressively revealed in recent years. On the other hand, the mechanism of dynamic regulation of kinetochore-microtubule interaction in early mitosis, which is crucial for faithful chromosome segregation, continues to be elusive The Kinetochore-Microtubule Coupling Machinery Is Repurposed in Sensory Nervous System Morphogenesis Research output : Contribution to journal › Article Export citatio Maturation of the kinetochore-microtubule interface and the meaning of metaphase Maturation of the kinetochore-microtubule interface and the meaning of metaphase Pereira, António; Maiato, Helder 2012-07-17 00:00:00 Chromosome positioning at the equator of the mitotic spindle emerges out of a relatively entropic background. At this moment, termed metaphase, all kinetochores have typically. Aurora B controls kinetochore-microtubule attachments by inhibiting Ska complex-KMN network interaction. Chan YW , Jeyaprakash AA , Nigg EA , Santamaria A The KMN network (named according to the acronym for KNL1, Mis12, and Ndc80) and the more recently identified Ska complex (Ska1-3) have been shown to mediate kinetochore (KT)-microtubule (MT) attachments

Kinetochore Definition and Examples - Biology Online

Medical Chinese dictionary (湘雅医学词典) kinetochore microtubule. Interpretation Translatio Kinetochore and non kinetochore Mt's form. Follow: Nuclear envelope Spindle apparatus Chromosomes Fig. 6-21 Vesicle ATP Receptor for motor protein Microtubule of cytoskeleton Motor protein (ATP powered) (a) Microtubule Vesicles (b) 0.25 μm Recall: Microtubules (tubulin polymers) are tracks that motor proteins, like kinesin, can move along on kinetochore microtubule: examples and translations in context Each chromatid was attached to a spindle pole by a single, continuous, kinetochore microtubule . Chaque chromatide est attaché à un pôle du fuseau par un microtubule simple et continu du cinétochore Kinetochore is the attachment site for spindle microtubule thereby directly involved in the movement of chromosomes during mitosis and meiosis. It is the site at which motors generate forces to power chromosome movement. It specifies the attachments between the chromosomes and microtubules of the spindle thus essential for accurate chromosome.

Mikrotubulus - Wikipedi

Kinetochore-Microtubule Interactions. Authors; Authors and affiliations; Lesley Clayton; Tomoyuki U. Tanaka; Chapter. First Online: 30 September 2008. 520 Downloads; Introduction. Kinetochores are the multiprotein macromolecular assemblies on chromatin that ensure the accurate and timely segregation of chromosomes at during mitosis. To achieve. Interference with kinetochore activity triggers a spindle checkpoint mediated arrest in mitosis, which frequently ends in cell death. We set out to identify small compounds that inhibit kinetochore-microtubule binding for use in kinetochore-spindle interaction studies and to develop them into novel anticancer drugs

Microtubule-Kinetochore Interactions. We are studying the yeast Dam1 kinetochore complex (or DASH). Our initial studies, in collaboration with the Drubin and Barnes labs (UC Berkeley), showed that this complex assembles into rings around microtubules and that the rings move processively with microtubule ends, coupling microtubule depolymerization to directional movement A kinetochore microtubule, as its name suggests, is the type of microtubule that attaches to the kinetochores of the condensed chromosomes (this is the type that draws the chromosomes toward the centrosomes at the poles of the dividing cell). The motor protein kinesin walking a microtubule. Source: Wikimedia. More >> fp6,kinetochore and cancer,mobility-3.1,vtt technical research centre of finland(fi Protein arms in the kinetochore-microtubule interface of the yeast DASH complex. Molecular Biology of the Cell 18, no. 7: 2503-2510. Abstract The yeast DASH complex is a heterodecameric component of the kinetochore necessary for accurate chromosome segregation. DASH forms closed rings around microtubules with a large gap between the DASH ring. Kinetochore function is mediated through its interaction with microtubule plus ends embedded in the kinetochore outer plate. Here, we compare and evaluate current models for kinetochore microtubule attachment, beginning with a brief review of the molecular, biochemical, cellular, and structural studies upon which these models are based

Developmental Cell Article Kinetochore-Dependent Microtubule Rescue Ensures Their Efficient and Sustained Interactions in Early Mitosis Sapan R. Gandhi,1 Marek Gierlinski,1,2 Akihisa Mino,1,3 Kozo Tanaka,1,4 Etsushi Kitamura,1 Lesley Clayton,1 and Tomoyuki U. Tanaka1,* 1Wellcome Trust Centre for Gene Regulation & Expression, College of Life Sciences, University of Dundee, Dundee DD1 5EH, U The accurate segregation of chromosomes at mitosis is essential for proper cell division and for the development of all healthy animals and plants. Proper mitosis, in turn, depends on correct interact.. F, quantitation of kinetochore-captured microtubule bundles. To quantify the number of kinetochore-captured microtubule bundles as a function of kinetochore protein, the number of end-on kinetochore microtubule bundles per cell from the projection images constructed from the stack of 0.25-μm optical sections was counted title = Cyclin A2 modulates kinetochore-microtubule attachment in meiosis II, abstract = Cyclin A2 is a crucial mitotic Cdk regulatory partner that coordinates entry into mitosis and is then destroyed in prometaphase within minutes of nuclear envelope breakdown kinetochore-microtubule interface in kinetoplastids. The kinetoplastid kinetochore protein KKT4 is an unconventional microtubule tip-coupling protein Aida Llauró1* , Hanako Hayashi2*, Megan E. Bailey1*, Alex Wilson 2, Patryk Ludzia2, Charles L. Asbury1 , and Bungo Akiyoshi2 Introductio

Microtubule - Wikipedi

kinetochore is a macromolecular structure composed of 40 dif- ferent types of proteins assembled into repeating subcomplexes that span from the centromeric DNA to the microtubule (2) A kinetochore is a complex protein structure that is analogous to a ring for the microtubule hook; it is the point where microtubules attach themselves to the chromosome. When the spindle grows to sufficient length, kinetochore microtubules begin searching for kinetochores to attach to Microtubule polymerization dynamics at kinetochores is coupled to chromosome movements, but its regulation there is poorly understood. The plus end tracking protein EB1 is required both for regulating microtubule dynamics and for maintaining a euploid genome In vitro reconstitution of the microtubule-kinetochore coupling Vladimir Volkov Collaborators: Prof. Andrea Musacchio, Max Planck Institute of Molecular Physiology in Dortmund, Germany. Cell division is one of the most fundamental processes that aims to distribute two copies of genome to two daughter cells. The physical movement and separation. Coupling kinetochore microtubule dynamics to chromosome motion Abstract: During cell division chromosomes must segregate equally to ensure the health and viability of the daughter cells. It is now wel..

(PDF) Kinetochore microtubule dynamics and the metaphase

One of the major microtubule-binding activities in the kinetochore is mediated by the conserved Ndc80 complex (Ndc80c) [5-7]. In budding yeast, the retention of kinetochores on dynamic microtubule tips also depends on the essential heterodecameric Dam1 complex (Dam1c) [8-15], which binds to the Ndc80c and is proposed to be a functional ortholog of the metazoan Ska complex [16, 17] The distal end of the kinetochore tubule is firmly embedded in the pole . 著絲點微管的末端牢牢地埋入紡錘極。 In plant cells, for example, this moderately stained material is particularly prominent at kinetochores. 在植物細胞中像這種染色適度的物質在著絲點上是特別顯著的

kinetochore microtubule SG

The nuclear division cycle 80 complex (Ndc80C) is a major microtubule receptor at the kinetochore. Ndc80C also mediates the kinetochore recruitment of checkpoint proteins. We found that the checkpoint protein kinase monopolar spindle 1 (Mps1) directly bound to Ndc80C through two independent interactions which tethers the outer kinetochore to spindle microtubules and participates in chromosome segregation. Deletions of an internal loop within the coiledcoil region of - Ndc80 render cells temperature sensitive and unable to make stable microtubule-kinetochore attachments, resulting in metaphase arrest and DNA mis-segregation phenotypes Coupling to the dynamic microtubule end via the kinetochore MAPs Conventional ATP-dependent motors are important for the fidelity of chromosome segregation but they are dispensable for pole-directed chromosome motion in dividing cells, suggesting that disassembling microtubules can serve as a minus-end-directed motor The ring associates with rodlike Ndc80 complexes to organize the kinetochore-microtubule interface. We report the cryo-electron microscopy structure (at ~4.5-angstrom resolution) of a DASH/Dam1c ring and a molecular model of its ordered components, validated by evolutionary direct-coupling analysis. Integrating this structure with that of the. Tension is thought to stabilize these bi-oriented attachments indirectly, by suppressing the destabilizing activity of a kinase, Aurora B. However, a complete mechanistic understanding of the role of tension requires reconstitution of kinetochore-microtubule attachments for biochemical and biophysical analyses in vitro

Thesis (Ph. D.)--Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Dept. of Biology, 2012. DSpace @ MIT Molecular mechanisms of kinetochore microtubule attachment Research and Teaching Output of the MIT Communit kinetochore (plural kinetochores) The protein structure in eukaryotes which assembles on the centromere and links the chromosome to microtubule polymers from the mitotic spindle during mitosis. Translation Homologous chromosome segregation errors during meiosis I are common and generate aneuploid embryos. Here, we provide a reason for this susceptibility to mis-segregation by live cell imaging of mouse oocytes. Our results show that stable kinetochore-microtubule attachments form in mid-prometaphase, 3-4 hours before anaphase. This coincided with the loss of Mad2 from kinetochores and with the. Dynamic kinetochore-microtubule attachments. A key goal for our lab is to define how kinetochores harness the force generated by microtubule depolymerization to direct chromosome alignment and segregation. Our work implicated the KNL1/Mis12 Complex/Ndc80 Complex (KMN) network as an essential player in mediating attachments between kinetochores. ARTICLES Kinetochore kinesin CENP-E is a processive bi-directional tracker of dynamic microtubule tips NikitaGudimchuk1,5,BenjaminVitre2,5,YumiKim2,6,AnatolyKiyatkin1,DonW.Cleveland2, FazlyI.Ataullakhanov3,4 andEkaterinaL.Grishchuk1,7 During vertebrate mitosis, the centromere-associated kinesin CENP-E (centromere protein E) transports misaligned chromosome

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